America’s lost month: How the U.S. fell behind on coronavirus testing.
As the coronavirus spread across the United States between late January and early March, large-scale testing of people who might have been infected did not happen because of technical flaws, regulatory hurdles, business-as-usual bureaucracies and lack of leadership at multiple levels.
The three federal health agencies responsible for detecting and combating pandemic threats failed to prepare quickly enough, a Times investigation found. Even as scientists looked at China and sounded alarms, none of the agencies’ directors conveyed the urgency required to spur a no-holds-barred defense, according to interviews with more than 50 current and former public health officials, administration officials, senior scientists and company executives.
Dr. Robert Redfield, the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, trusted the agency’s veteran scientists to develop a test for the coronavirus. But when the test turned out to have a flaw, it took the C.D.C. much of February to settle on a solution. In the meantime, the virus was spreading undetected.
Dr. Stephen Hahn, the commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, was supposed to help build national testing capacity by approving diagnostic tests developed by the private sector. Yet he enforced regulations that paradoxically made it tougher for hospitals and laboratories to deploy such tests in an emergency.
Alex M. Azar II, the health and human services secretary, oversaw the two other agencies and coordinated the government’s public health response to the pandemic. Yet he did not manage to push the C.D.C. or F.D.A. to speed up or change course.
Together, the challenges resulted in a lost month, when the United States squandered its best chance of containing the coronavirus’s spread. Instead, Americans were left largely blind to the scale of a looming public health catastrophe.
C.D.C. issues a travel advisory for the New York region, after Trump backs off his quarantine threat.
President Trump said on Saturday night that he would not impose a quarantine on New York, New Jersey and Connecticut but would instead issue a “strong” travel advisory to be implemented by the governors of the three states.
Mr. Trump made the announcement on Twitter just hours after telling reporters that he was considering a quarantine of the three states in an effort to limit the spread of the coronavirus to Florida and other states.
Later Saturday night, the C.D.C. issued a formal advisory urging the residents of the three states to “refrain from nonessential domestic travel for 14 days effective immediately.” The advisory, which was posted to the agency’s website and its Twitter account, does not apply to “employees of critical infrastructure industries,” the agency said. That includes trucking, public health professionals, financial services and food supply workers.
Mr. Trump, when he said he was considering a quarantine for the region, offered no details about how his administration would enforce it. Speaking to CNN, Gov. Andrew Cuomo of New York criticized the idea, calling it “a declaration of war on states.”
He also questioned the logistical challenges, as well as the message, that such an order would present. “If you start walling off areas all across the country, it would just be totally bizarre, counterproductive, anti-American, antisocial,” he said.
Mr. Trump’s public airing of his deliberations came one day after he signed a $2 trillion economic stimulus package and as cases in the tristate area continued to climb. The specter of a federal quarantine followed a wave of governors who, fearful about the virus spreading further through their states, ordered people who had traveled from New York to isolate themselves for two weeks after their arrivals.
Gov. Gina Raimondo of Rhode Island said Friday that state troopers would begin stopping drivers with New York license plates so that National Guard officials could collect contact information and inform people coming from the state that they were subject to a mandatory 14-day quarantine.
Texas, Florida, Maryland and South Carolina are among the other states that have ordered people arriving from New York to self-quarantine. In Texas, the authorities said on Friday that Department of Public Safety agents would make surprise visits to see whether travelers were adhering to the state’s mandate, and they warned that violators could be fined $1,000 and jailed for 180 days.
Mr. Lamont, the Connecticut governor, last week urged all travelers from New York City to self-quarantine for two weeks upon entering the state, but he stopped short of issuing an order requiring it.
A sudden lockdown in India leaves hundreds of thousands of migrants homeless and jobless.
In one of the biggest migrations in India’s modern history, hundreds of thousands of migrant laborers have begun long journeys on foot to get home, having been rendered homeless and jobless by Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s nationwide lockdown to contain the spread of the coronavirus.
In the capital, Delhi, thousands of migrants, including whole families, packed their pots, pans and blankets into rucksacks, some balancing small children on their shoulders as they walked along interstate highways. Some planned to walk hundreds of miles. But as they reached the Delhi border, many were beaten back by the police.
“You fear the disease, living on the streets. But I fear hunger more, not corona,” said Papu, 32, who came to Delhi three weeks ago for work and was trying to get to his home in Saharanpur in the state of Uttar Pradesh, 125 miles away.
So far, 980 people have tested positive for the coronavirus in India, with 24 dead, according to officials.
India already had one of the world’s largest homeless populations, and the lockdown may have tripled it overnight, workers for nongovernmental organizations say. A 2011 government census put the number of homeless at 1.7 million, almost certainly a vast underestimate in the country of 1.3 billion.
The lockdown, which includes a ban on interstate travel, was announced with just four hours’ notice on Tuesday, leaving India’s enormous migrant population stranded in big cities, where jobs lure them in vast numbers from the countryside.
Britain can expect a ‘significant’ lockdown period, a senior lawmaker says.
Britain should be prepared for a significant period in lockdown as the government tries to tackle the coronavirus outbreak, a senior cabinet minister said on Sunday.
“Everyone, I think, does have to prepare for a significant period when these measures are still in place,” the minister, Michael Gove, told the BBC.
His remarks came as the country’s National Health Service mourned the loss of a surgeon who died after contracting the coronavirus. The surgeon, Adil El Tayar, 63, a native of Sudan, was an organ transplant specialist who had been serving as a volunteer in a British hospital to help fight the pandemic.
Britain’s ambassador to Sudan, Irfan Siddiq, paid tribute to the surgeon on Twitter, adding: “Health workers around the world have shown extraordinary courage. We cannot thank them enough.”
Thousands of retired doctors and nurses in Britain have agreed to go back to work to reinforce the ranks of the health service as the country struggles with a growing outbreak. The more than 400,000 people who have stepped forward also include volunteers who are helping elderly people quarantined in their homes.
Britain had over 17,000 confirmed coronavirus cases as of Sunday — including Prime Minister Boris Johnson, who was initially reluctant to introduce social distancing measures in the country; Matt Hancock, the health secretary; and Prince Charles, the heir to the British throne.
Wealthier Europeans escape to second homes, stoking fear and anger in smaller communities.
Across Europe, affluent city dwellers have been leaving hard-hit cities for their second homes, where proximity to the sea or the mountains lessens the discomfort of confinement. But they also bring fears that they will spread the coronavirus to regions with few hospitals, putting at greater risk local residents who tend to be older and have limited incomes.
The situation has ignited anger over what the pandemic is laying bare every day: the ever widening gap between the rich and the poor.
In Italy, currently the European nation with the most infections and deaths, many people fled south from the hard-hit north, the region first put in lockdown. Though hard figures are unavailable, some officials in the south have attributed new infections to the influx.
In Spain, José María Aznar, the former prime minister, packed his bags for his holiday villa in Marbella, a celebrity resort on the Mediterranean, leaving Madrid on the very day that the capital shut all schools and universities. The move fueled anger across social media as well as calls to monitor Mr. Aznar and lock him inside his villa.
And in France — which has 3.4 million second homes, far more than any of its neighbors — some urbanites arrived on the island of Noirmoutier and headed straight to the beach. They were seen picnicking, kite surfing, jogging and biking. In retribution, tires of about half a dozen cars with Paris plates were slashed.
“Their behavior was unacceptable,’’ said Frédéric Boucard, 47, an oyster farmer. “It’s as if they were on vacation.”
Another local, Claude Gouraud, 55, said, “We should have blocked the bridge weeks ago.”
Citing virus fears, a judge ordered U.S. officials to make efforts to release detained migrant children.
Concerned that thousands of migrant children in federal detention facilities could be in danger of contracting the coronavirus, a federal judge in Los Angeles late on Saturday ordered the government to “make continuous efforts” to release them from custody.
The order, from Judge Dolly M. Gee of the United States District Court, came after plaintiffs in a long-running case over the detention of migrant children cited reports that four children being held at a federally licensed shelter in New York had tested positive for the virus.
“The threat of irreparable injury to their health and safety is palpable,” the plaintiffs’ lawyers said in their petition, which called for migrant children across the country to be released to outside sponsors within seven days unless they represent a flight risk.
Around the United States, about 3,600 children are in shelters operated under license by the federal Office of Refugee Resettlement, and about 3,300 more at three detention facilities for migrant children held in custody with their parents, operated by the Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency.
Illinois reports first known U.S. death of an infant with the coronavirus.
An infant who tested positive for the coronavirus has died in Chicago, the authorities said on Saturday. It was the first known death of a child younger than a year old with the virus in the United States, although the authorities in some states do not release details about people who die.
Newborns and babies have seemed to be largely unaffected by the coronavirus, but three new studies suggest that the virus may reach the fetus in utero.
“There has never before been a death associated with Covid-19 in an infant,” said Dr. Ngozi Ezike, the director of the Illinois Department of Public Health. “A full investigation is underway to determine the cause of death.” Older adults, especially those in their 80s and 90s, have been viewed as the most vulnerable in the outbreak, but younger people have also died.
By Saturday night, deaths in the United States had surpassed 2,000, at least 50 of them in Illinois. More than 3,500 known cases of the virus have been identified in Illinois.
Ambulances in New York haven’t been this busy since 9/11.
Even as hospitals across New York become inundated with coronavirus cases, some patients are being left behind in their homes because the health care system cannot handle them all, according to dozens of interviews with paramedics, New York Fire Department officials and union representatives, as well as city data.
In a matter of days, the city’s 911 system has been overwhelmed by calls for medical distress apparently related to the virus. Typically, the system sees about 4,000 Emergency Medical Services calls a day.
On Thursday, dispatchers took more than 7,000 calls — a volume not seen since the Sept. 11 attacks. The record for amount of calls in a day was broken three times in the last week.
Because of the volume, emergency medical workers are making life-or-death decisions about who is sick enough to take to crowded emergency rooms and who appears well enough to leave behind. They are assessing on scene which patients should receive time-consuming measures like CPR and intubation, and which patients are too far gone to save.
And they are often doing it, they say, without appropriate equipment to protect themselves from infection.
The paramedics described grim scenes as New York City has become the epicenter of the coronavirus pandemic in the United States, with more than 29,000 cases as of Saturday, and 517 deaths.
Answers to your questions about staying fit.
Stuck at home? You don’t need access to a gym to stay active. You can (and should) go outside for a walk or run (or do pushups and squats).
Interview with a W.H.O. official revives criticism over China’s influence.
A World Health Organization official ducked questions about Taiwan’s response to the coronavirus pandemic, reviving criticism that China exercises undue influence over what should be an apolitical body concerned with global health.
China considers self-governed Taiwan to be part of its territory, and has sought to limit its international recognition and participation in multinational bodies like the W.H.O. In its coronavirus situation reports, the W.H.O. has listed Taiwan as part of China and referred to it as “Taipei,” its capital city, and later “Taipei and environs.”
In an interview broadcast Saturday by RTHK, the Hong Kong public broadcaster, the journalist Yvonne Tong asked Dr. Bruce Aylward, a senior adviser at the W.H.O., whether Taiwan should be reconsidered for membership in the organization.
At first, Dr. Aylward, who led a W.H.O team to China in February, said he had not heard the question over the video call. But when pushed again, he asked that Ms. Tong move on to a new question. When she tried again, the video was disconnected. RTHK then called back and asked about Taiwan’s performance in containing the virus.
“We’ve already talked about China, and you know, when you look across all the different areas of China, they’ve actually all done quite a good job,” Dr. Aylward responded.
Joseph Wu, Taiwan’s foreign minister, criticized Dr. Aylward’s comments. “Wow, can’t even utter ‘Taiwan’ in the W.H.O.?” Mr. Wu wrote on Twitter. “You should set politics aside in dealing with a pandemic.”
Taiwan has been widely credited for containing the spread of the coronavirus within its borders, despite its proximity to mainland China and the large number of people who regularly travel across the Taiwan Strait. Taiwan has recorded 283 confirmed coronavirus cases and just two deaths.
Taiwan last week accused the W.H.O. of not passing along a warning it sent in December, which cautioned governments about the outbreak in Wuhan, the city in China where the coronavirus emerged last year.
Reporting and research were contributed by Neil MacFarquhar, Alan Blinder, Michael D. Shear, Jesse McKinley, Abby Goodnough, Sheila Kaplan, Sheri Fink, Katie Thomas, Noah Weiland, Ali Watkins, Maria Abi-Habib, Austin Ramzy, Tess Felder, Yonette Joseph and Iliana Magra.